About Us - Key Personnel

Deborah Schnell, P.E.
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Technical Specialties

Design and construction of pilot scale and full scale innovative remedial services, including in-situ chemical oxidation and in-situ chemical reduction systems; design and construction of soil vapor extraction and air sparging systems; soil and groundwater investigations; design of in-situ permeable barriers, source area grid injection systems; formation enhancement using pneumatic fracturing techniques under structures and active facilities; client problem solving; construction and project management; feasibility studies; engineering evaluations and estimating.

Experience Summary

21 years of Experience: Senior Project Manager and Engineer at GeoSierra Environmental, Inc.; Senior Project Manager at Panther Technologies, Inc.; Director of Remedial Services at Summit Drilling Company, Inc.; President of Pneumatic Fracturing, Inc.; Senior Associate at Langan Engineering; Senior Engineer at McLaren/Hart, Inc.; Boiler/HVAC Operator at Exxon Research & Engineering Company.

Soil remediation experience includes soil vapor extraction, and targeted subsurface delivery of remedial products. Groundwater remediation experience includes dry media injection, in-situ chemical oxidation, bioremediation, groundwater recovery and treatment, and mass transfer (AS/VE, DPVE, bioslurping, etc.) systems. Pneumatic fracturing expert focused on directional injection for targeted fractures, source area remediation, emplacement of remedial products via dry media injection, and performance monitoring of subsurface delivery. Extensive environmental management experience in Superfund work, RCRA remedial investigations, SPCC Plans, risk-based investigative and remedial strategies for complex sites.

Credentials

  • B.S., 1994 Civil Engineering Lafayette College, Pennsylvania
  • M.S., 1996 Civil Engineering, Geo-Environmental New Jersey Institute of Technology, New Jersey
  • NJ Professional Engineer
  • 40-Hour OSHA Training and 8-Hour Refresher Training
  • 8-Hour OSHA Supervisor Training
  • NJ Blue Seal 3rd Class Boiler Engineer
  • NJ Universal Technician Refrigerant Transition and Recovery Certification
  • ASCE Certified, Structural Condition Assessment

Publications

  • Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. The Eight International Conference. May 2012. “Design, Field Application & Verification of Pneumatically Injected Permeable Reactive Barriers,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Soils, Sediments, Water and Energy. The 26th Annual International Conference. October 2010, “Design, Field Application & Verification of Pneumatically Injected Permeable Reactive Barriers,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. The Seventh International Conference. May 2010. “Design, Field Application & Verification of Pneumatically Injected Permeable Reactive Barriers,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. The Seventh International Conference. May 2010. “Enhancement of Existing Remedial Systems Using Pneumatic Fracturing,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Clemson Hydrogeology Symposium. April 2010, “Design, Field Application & Verification of Pneumatically Injected Permeable Reactive Barriers,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Clemson Hydrogeology Symposium. April 2010, “Innovative Monitoring Techniques for Fracturing and Injection Activities,” D.L. Schnell.
  • In-Situ Soil and Groundwater Remediation Conference. Second Biennial Southeastern Conference. February 2010, “Pneumatic Fracturing for Delivery of Remedial Amendments,” D.L. Schnell.
  • AIPG Hydraulic Fracturing Conference. November 2009, “Pneumatic Fracturing for Enhancement of Existing Remedial Systems,” D.L. Schnell.
  • AIPG Hydraulic Fracturing Conference. November 2009, “Application of Pneumatic Fracturing and Media Injection Adjacent to/within Structures,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Contaminated Site Management. The First International Conference. October 2009, “Permeable Reactive Barrier Construction Using Pneumatic Fracturing and Injection Methods,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Contaminated Site Management. The First International Conference. October 2009, “Pneumatic Fracturing for Enhancement of Existing Remedial Systems,” D.L. Schnell.
  • “Hydraulic Anisotropy Characterization of Pneumatic-Fractured Sediments Using Azimuthal Self Potential Gradient,” Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 103, (3-4), pp. 134-44, D. Wishart, L. Slater, D. L. Schnell, and G.C. Herman.
  • Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater (ORTs-6). The Sixth International Conference. September 2008. “Innovative Techniques for Monitoring Subsurface Distribution of Fractures or Injected Products,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater (ORTs-6). The Sixth International Conference. September 2008. “Non-Invasive Geotechnical Technique for Evaluating Fractures Induced by Pneumatic or Hydraulic Fracturing,” D. Wishart and D.L. Schnell.
  • Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. The Sixth International Conference. May 2008. “Innovative Monitoring Techniques for Fracturing and Injection Activities,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Symposium for the Application of Geophysics to Environmental & Engineering Geophysical Society. SAGEEP 2008. April 2008. “Azimuthal Self Potential Signatures Associated with Pneumatic Fracturing,” Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society, pp. 829-832, D. Wishart, L. Slater, D.L. Schnell, and G. Herman.
  • Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater (ORTs-5). The Fifth International Conference. September 2007. “Application of Pneumatic Fracturing and Injection Beneath an Active Industrial Facility,” D.L. Schnell and C. C. Wright.
  • Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater (ORTs-5). The Fifth International Conference. September 2007. “Combination of Technologies for Full Scale Enhanced Dechlorination Remediation,” J. Orris, J. Mateo, D.L. Schnell, and C. Bickmore.
  • Characterization of Fractured Rock: Characterization & Remediation (CFR-1). The First International Conference. September 2007. “Borehole Geophysical Techniques for Evaluation of Contaminant Pathways & Remedial Design,” J. Orris, S. McQuown, and D.L. Schnell.
  • Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater (ORTs-5). The Fifth International Conference. September 2007. “Effective Pilot Studies for Combination of Remedial Technologies,” J. Orris, J. Mateo, D.L. Schnell, and C. Bickmore.
  • Remediation Technologies Development Forum Permeable Reactive Barriers Action Team Meeting. October 2006. “Full Scale EZVI Implementation for DNAPL Remediation,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater (DNAPL-1). The First International Conference. September 2006. “Pneumatic Fracturing/Injection Delivery for Enhanced Dechlorination,” D.L. Schnell, J. Orris, J. Mateo, and C. Bickmore.
  • Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater (DNAPL-1). The First International Conference. September 2006. “In-Situ DNAPL Remediation: Full Scale EZVI Implementation,” H. Faircloth, J. Greg Booth, P. Jin, D.L. Schnell, J. Quinn, D. Johansen, and J. Matthews.
  • Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. The Fifth International Conference. May 2006. “Pneumatic Fracturing/Injection Delivery for Enhanced Dechlorination,” D.L. Schnell., J. Mateo, J. Orris, and C. Bickmore.
  • Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. The Fifth International Conference. May 2006. “Pneumatic Fracturing and Media Injection Adjacent To/Within Structures and Utilities,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater (ORTs-4). The Fourth International Conference. October 2005. “Application of Pneumatic Fracturing and Media Injection Adjacent To/Within Structures,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Challenges in Site Remediation: Proper Site Characterization, Technology Selection and Testing and Performance Monitoring (CSR-1). The First International Conference. October 2005. “Application of Pneumatic Fracturing and Media Injection in Fractured Bedrock,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater (ORTs-3). The Third International Conference. October 2004. “Pneumatic Injection of Emulsified Zero Valent Iron for DNAPL Treatment,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Installation of Dispersed Iron Permeable Reactive Treatment Zones Using Pneumatic Injection. UChlorinated Solvent and DNAPL Remediation: Innovative Strategies for Subsurface Cleanup. 2003. S.M. Henry and S.D. Warner, Eds.; Oxford University Press: American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., pp. 236-258, D.L. Schnell and J. Mack.
  • Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for In-Situ Treatment of Soil and Groundwater (ORTs-2). The Second International Conference. November 2002. “Installation of a Permeable Reactive Treatment Zone in a Fractured Bedrock Aquifer,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds. The Third International Conference. May 2002. “Installation of Permeable Reactive Barriers Using Pneumatic Fracturing,” D.L. Schnell.
  • International Containment & Remediation Technology Conference and Exhibition. June 2001. “Installation of PRBs Using Pneumatic Injection,” D.L. Schnell.
  • Division of Environmental Chemistry. 221st ACS National Meeting. April 2001. “Installation of Permeable Reactive Barriers Using Pneumatic Fracturing,” D.L. Schnell.
  • “In Situ Technology Tackles Tainted Groundwater,” Pollution Engineering, June 2000, pp. 49-50. D. L. Schnell.
  • “Extended Radius Wells at McGuire AFB,” Soil & Groundwater Cleanup, October/November 1999, pp. 18-20, D.L. Schnell.
  • IBC Environmental Technology Symposium for Subsurface Barrier Technology. February 1999. “Pneumatic Injection of Iron to Treat Chlorinated Solvents,” D.L. Schnell.
  • ASCE Environmental Geotechnology and Global Sustainable Development. The Fourth International Symposium. August 1998. “Pneumatic Injection of Iron to Treat Chlorinated Solvents,” D.L. Schnell, T. Boland, J.R. Schuring, C. Parks.
  • A Development of a GIS for Environmental Assessment Incorporating Known Potential Environmental Hazards and Remote Sensing, ASTM STP 1279, V.H. Singhroy, D.D. Nebert, and A.I. Johnson, Eds., American Society of Testing and Materials, 1996, pp. 101-106. D.L. Shaffer, M.J.S. Roth, and R. Ruggles.
  • Application of a Geographic Information System to Evaluate Environmental Hazards, Proceedings, First Congress of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, New York, New York, 1994, pp. 265-272. M.J.S. Roth, D.L. Shaffer, and R. Ruggles.

Professional Affiliations

  • American Society of Civil Engineering
  • Society of Women Environmental Professionals

Key Projects

  • Provided project management and implementation of an in-situ chemical oxidation project using sodium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide.  Approximately 22,000 gallons of 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide was injected to flush the soils in a concentrated area using existing injection points followed by injection of 2,700 gallons of 20% concentration of sodium persulfate and an additional 24,000 gallons of 6% solution of hydrogen peroxide.
  • Provided project management and implementation of an in-situ chemical oxidation project where over 68,000 gallons of 1% concentration of sodium permanganate was injected via an existing well network for TCE remediation.  Source areas were trenched and approximately 6,800 gallons of 4% solution was distributed via a horizontal well network.
  • Implemented an in-situ chemical oxidation project of 2% solution of sodium permanganate at two existing well locations .  Approximately 38,500 gallons of solution was injected via a multi-injection manifold at a flow rate between 4 and 15 gpm while measuring groundwater parameters at surrounding wells for influence.
  • Provided project management and design of multiple remedial injection projects for in situ chemical oxidation, in situ chemical reduction, reductive dechlorination and bioremediation. Tasks include client interface, scheduling and coordination, budgeting, project and personnel management.
  • Provided design, project management, implementation, and reporting for three projects using pneumatic fracturing for soil vapor extraction systems – two for existing systems that have reached asymptotic levels and one prior to installation of the system.  Directional pneumatic fracturing was conducted targeting source area concentrations up to 10,000 ppbv in a silty clay and clay between depths of 9 and 16 feet bgs and 6 and 17 feet bgs.  Targeted areas were adjacent to lightweight structures and utilities including terra cotta sanitary sewer lines and high pressure water lines.  Concentrations reduced 94% in four weeks post-fracturing activities. 
  • Provided design, project management, implementation and reporting for a pilot-scale pneumatic fracturing and injection project contaminated with hexavalent chromium between depths of 45 and 65 feet bgs.  Approximately 4,000 gallons of 1% solution of c alcium polysulfide and a tracer were injected to delineate the distribution of amendments followed by core sampling for visual inspection and confirmation of fractures.  Results were used for full-scale design.
  • Provided project management, implementation and reporting for full-scale pneumatic fracturing of bedrock using in situ chemical oxidation.  Chelated iron and 12.5% solution of hydrogen peroxide were injected prior to and post-fracturing activities.  Flow rates increased from 1 gpm to 12 gpm subsequent fracturing activities and interconnection with two wells was achieved and visually confirmed.
  • Provided project management, implementation and reporting for full-scale injection of 6,800 gallons of 20% solution sodium permanganate in an existing re-injectable point well network using hydraulic fracturing for reduction of chlorinated solvents.  Pneumatic fracturing of potassium permanganate was conducted at two locations at deeper intervals to distribute a horizontal treatment barrier for potential downward migration.  Project was conducted and completed after hours due to the restricted access.  Injection flow rates increased tenfold from initial injections from increased pressure initiation injections.
  • Provided project management, design, implementation and reporting for source area remediation for PCE contamination at concentrations in breathing zones up to 400 ppm.  3,500 lbs of frac sand was initially injected for permeability enhancement prior to the injection of 1,200 gal of 10% solution of sodium permanganate at fracture points.  Previous direct push injections exhibited a flow rate of approximately 5 gpm.  Post-fracturing activities results in 10-20 gpm per point.  No adverse effects were observed on the structure, footings or nearby storm water pipe.
  • Provided design, project management, construction and reporting for emplacement of 46 tons of zero valent iron using pneumatic fracturing and injection in four permeable reactive barriers for groundwater and smear zone treatment of chloroform.  The formation consisted of artificial fill and Bay Mud from a depth of 10 to 25 feet bgs.  Performance monitoring of injection activities demonstrated a consistent larger radius of influence than design, resulting in a reduction of half of the injection points at two of the barriers; thereby, reducing overall drilling costs and field time.  Groundwater monitoring post-injection activities indicated a 93% reduction in two weeks and 98% reduction in six weeks. 
  • Provided project management, field implementation and reporting for pneumatic fracturing and injection of emulsified zero valent iron for chlorinated solvent contamination in the vadose zone at two sites during one mobilization.  The geology consisted of clays and silty clays.  Directional fracturing/injection was implemented for source zone remediation to minimize potential migration of the groundwater plume.  One site consisted of implementation of field activities adjacent to an active gas line, sanitary sewer and existing old structure, and the other site required fracturing as shallow as 5 feet bgs.  Minimal daylighting was observed with shallow fracturing and no adverse effects on the structural integrity of the building or utilities were observed.
  • Bodine Environmental Services, Rockton, IL – Pneumatic fracturing for permeability enhancement of an existing pump and treat system of a Superfund site.  Formation is glacial till with gravels, cobbles, sands and silts.  Activities were conducted adjacent to an existing structure.  Contaminants of concern include chlorinated solvents.
  • EarthTech, Sparr, FL – Pneumatic injection of seven tons of frac sand to sustain fractures for subsequent chemical oxidation injections into swelling clays, silty clays and silty sands.  Activities were conducted adjacent to a fiber optic line and a county road.  Contaminants of concern include BTEX, dissolved lead and TPH.
  • Delta Environmental Consultants, Edison, NJ – Co-injection of nano-scale iron and vegetable oil for remediation of chlorinated solvents.  Injections were applied in and adjacent to a building in silty clay and weathered bedrock.  The objective of project was to reduce the concentrations to ultimately shut down the groundwater recovery system.
  • TetraTech NUS, Dallas, TX – Pneumatic fracturing and dry media injection of zero valent iron into stiff clay to enhance the permeability for remediation for reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents.
  • GeoSyntec Consultants, Parris Island, SC – Pneumatic injection of emulsified zero valent iron into sand as part of the Environmental Security Technology Demonstration Program (ESTCP) in which a guidance document was prepared based on the evaluation of the technology to inject this product.
  • Gannett Fleming, Crystal Lake, IL – Implementation of pneumatic fracturing and injection of molasses, cheese whey, ZVI and HRC for reductive dechlorination.  The location of the project was in an active facility where work schedules were adjusted around the client’s work hours and structural monitoring was important to assure no impact to the facility.
  • MECx, Edison, NJ – Pneumatic fracturing was applied to enhance the formation for chemical oxidation injection of a leaking UST in a residential neighborhood.  Fracturing wells were located immediately adjacent to homes and utilities.
  • Subsurface Remediation & Investigation, Princeton, NJ – Organization and project implementation for a residential site in which pneumatic fracturing and pneumatic dry media injection of ceramic beads was applied to enhance the formation for chemical oxidation injection of a leaking UST. 
  • HydroQual, Linden, NJ – Implementation of which pneumatic fracturing at a private site for enhancement of the permeability for an existing groundwater treatment system in a weathered rock.  Additional activities included the dry media injection of a sand to prop open fractures formed by the pneumatic fracturing process.
  •  CORE Engineering & Construction, Florida – Implementation of pneumatic injection of emulsified zero valent iron (EZVI) at a military installation in flowing sands for remediation of source area chlorinated solvents.  The project was considered high visibility due to the location of the contamination near the base commander’s office and support services for NASA. 
  • Delta Environmental Consultants, Edison, NJ – Tasks included organization of project implementation for private industry in which pneumatic fracturing was applied in a building in conjunction with co-injection of nano-scale iron and vegetable oil to enhance the formation and remediate chlorinated solvents.  Project was completed in two phases – pilot and first phase full-scale implementation, both in silty clay and fractured rock.
  • Sovereign Consulting, Orangeburg, NJ – Organization and project implementation for a private industry in which pneumatic fracturing was applied to enhance the formation for HRC and HRCx injection in a glacial till.
  • GeoSyntec, Cape Canaveral, FL – Preparation and implementation of a bench-scale test to evaluate the pneumatic injection of emulsified zero valent iron (EZVI).  Additional field testing was performed at the site to determine the percent saturation of EZVI and radius of influence.
  • TDI Contracting, Inc., Hartford, CT – Preparation and installation of a temporary liner for a landfill.
  • TDI Contracting, Inc., Newark, NJ – Installation of a drainage swale for soil erosion and sediment control and maintenance of existing stockpiled soil.
  • Confidential Pharmaceutical Client, Albany, GA - Organization and project implementation for a large pharmaceutical company in which pneumatic fracturing and pneumatic injection of sand was applied to enhance the formation for a dual phase extraction system in a stiff clay.
  • Confidential Client, Wrightstown, NJ - Tasks included pneumatic fracturing and pneumatic injection of ceramic beads to enhance the formation with a proppant for free product recovery of jet fuel in silty sand.
  • Confidential Pharmaceutical Client, Albany, GA - Pneumatic fracturing was applied to enhance the formation for a dual phase extraction system in stiff clay.
  • ENVIRON International, Princeton, NJ – Tasks included estimating, engineering design, preparation of permits, evaluation of innovative site remediation alternatives for several sites and technical support for the project manager.
  • Confidential Client, Various Locations - Projects include oil/water recovery system, permeable reactive walls (PRW) using iron filings, source treatment using Dual Phase Extraction (DPE), diversion of roof drain systems, and full-scale application of Air Sparge/Soil Vapor Extraction (AS/SVE) systems.
  • Confidential Client, Gardena, CA - Column tests were conducted to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a permeable reactive barrier using iron filings.  Projected costs for a pilot scale and full-scale PRW are approximately $700k and $3.4M, respectively.
  • Confidential Client, Danville, PA - Work involved the excavation of test pits, removal of drums, calculations of impacted soil and waste characterization.
  • Gulton Industries, Metuchen, NJ - Involved in the project management, implementation and operation of an Air Sparging/Soil Vapor Extraction (AS/SVE) system, which includes the following components:  air system, vacuum system, catalytic oxidizer, and scrubber system.  Also, compiled and organized an Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Manual for the system.
  • Confidential Client, Various Locations - Field team leader of three separate AS/SVE and Dual Phase Extraction (DPE) pilot studies; responsibilities included well installation, health and safety monitoring, organization of the field work, groundwater sampling, vapor sampling and field gas chromatograph analysis of the vapor stream.
  • Confidential Pharmaceutical Client, Raritan, NJ - Involved in a Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) which included delineation of source areas, removal of an underground storage tank (UST), coordination of the removal of stockpiled soil, and groundwater investigation (i.e., bedrock, groundwater grab sampling program).  Prepared a comprehensive RFI report documenting the field activities and results.
  • Union Carbide, Kansas City, KS - Involved in the preparation of proposals including AS/SVE systems and the use of pneumatic fracturing to emplace granular iron at depths ranging from twenty-five to thirty-seven feet.
  • GPU Energy, Inc., Various Locations New Jersey and Pennsylvania - Served as an engineer for a Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan and Certification Program for an electric utility company.  Visited and evaluated electrical substations throughout Pennsylvania and New Jersey to determine whether SPCC Plans were required. When plans were required, SPCC Plans were prepared in accordance with 40 CFR 112 and certified. Responsibilities included taking inventory of site equipment, preparing a map of the site to be converted to CAD, reviewing over 40 SPCC Plans and inspecting over 70 sites.
  • Confidential Client, Murray Hill, NJ - Conducted a sump investigation (of approximately fifty sumps) as part of an ISRA investigation. Inspected the integrity of the sumps, dimensioned the sump and pipe inverts, and compiled a photographic log of the investigation.  Based on the compilation of data, the client received a “No Further Action” from the State.
  • Department of Energy, Paducah, KY - Involved in the preparation of proposals including AS/SVE systems and the use of pneumatic fracturing to emplace granular iron at depths ranging from eighty to one hundred twenty feet.
  • Confidential Client, St. Croix – As Field Team Leader, executed pilot tests and played a key role in making alterations to full scale air sparging/soil vapor extraction system.
  • Union Carbide, Kansas City, KS - While a research assistant at NJIT, evaluated an innovative remediation technique using reactive media (iron powder) and pneumatic fracturing.  Modeled contaminant transport and designed layout of wells for the project; performed geotechnical analysis on soil samples and iron powders; and conducted laboratory analyses to determine hydraulic permeabilities, flow rates, degradation efficiency, and specific surface area for various reactive media.
  • Exxon Research and Engineering, Annandale, NJ - As an environmental engineer, designed a refrigerant management plan to assure compliance with government regulations; developed forms and databases that are being used for accurate recordkeeping.
  • Exxon, Bayway, NJ - Conducted sensitivity studies of a base case screening study evaluating several site remediation technologies.  Performed economic analyses to determine the final cost for clean-up and recommend the best available technology to be used; compiled a sampling analysis manual which included safety procedures and operator’s maintenance schedule to be used by the Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators for permitted outfall sampling.
  • Exxon Research & Engineering, Annandale, NJ - Organized, updated, and verified SAMA drawings for the Advanced Wastewater Treatment plant to determine that the logic reflected Total Distributed Control (TDC) computer conditions.  Organized a reference book and databases for ease in trouble-shooting equipment. Performed software modifications to the TDC for the pH Adjustment Tank to provide more effective caustic control.  Reviewed the sludge waste schedule to determine if certain parameters could be used for sludge discharge.
  • Exxon Research & Engineering, Annandale, NJ - As a Steam Plant Engineer/Building Automation Control Operator, provided steam and other vital utilities to building personnel and tenants; was responsible for routine and emergency maintenance on equipment; provided HVAC to the entire site through an automated system; and was responsible for the installation a new automation system using blueprints, HVAC knowledge, and building design.

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